Goals to Achieve for the leadership

Time is one such thing that cannot be brought back once it is gone. It is simply irreversible. This is the reason why we must spend it wisely and ensure it is not wasted. However, even though all of us know that time once gone can never be brought back most of us waste it without any inhibitions. We often indulge in useless tasks at the time we should be working on something important. We wile away our precious time thoughtlessly until it is too late. Many people have the habit of doing their tasks at the last moment. When there is little or almost no time left the work is done in haste and anything done in haste can never be accomplished appropriately. We must recognize the importance of time and manage it efficiently. A person who learns the art of time management can accomplish almost any task in his life. However, it is easier said than done. It takes a lot of conviction to manage time efficiently. Time management should be among one of the good habits that children must be taught from the beginning. A child who understands the value of time is more disciplined. He grows up to be a responsible and successful person. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam.

In earlier times, people led a far more disciplined life compared to today. They woke up early in the morning and started with their daily chores well in time. They toiled hard all day long and accomplished all their tasks with dedication. They also made it a point to sleep on time. They focused on their work and managed their time efficiently. However, in today’s time, with so many distractions around, it has become difficult for people to maintain focus and accomplish their tasks timely. Even though people know that time is valuable, they are unable to manage it properly as they remain distracted by mobile phones, tabs, television and other sources of entertainment. Wasting Time: The Worst You Can Do to Yourself It is essential to understand the value of time. Wasting time is the worst thing one can do to himself/ herself. Time must always be used in a constructive way. We must value time just like we value all our other valuable belongings. We must not waste time indulging in non-productive tasks such as watching TV, surfing the internet and chit chatting over the phone. This is not to say that we should refrain from these completely. It just means, we must prioritize our tasks and accomplish all that is of importance and indulge in the aforementioned only for a limited time. Realise the Importance of Time It is time we all should recognize the importance of time. We must use it for our good as well as the good of those around us in order to build a better society. Parents must spend quality time with their children to build a strong bond with them. They must also teach the importance of time to their children and help them manage their time efficiently. A nation where each individual utilises his time efficiently and leads a disciplined life is likely to grow at a greater speed compared to a country where people wile away their time uselessly. Make the Most of the Time We must utilize our time wisely to make the most of it. It is best to prepare a schedule each morning and work according to it in order to make the most of the time we have. This is not only useful for students and working professionals but also for housewives and other people. There are numerous tasks that every person needs to handle in a day. In order to complete all the tasks in a timely manner, it is always good to schedule them properly. Now, this is not means that we must spend all our time working. If we do that then our productivity is likely to decline. We must thus squeeze in some time during the day for recreation as well. We must also ensure that we take adequate sleep as it is very important for working efficiently for the rest of the day. Conclusion It is rightly said, “The greatest gift you can give someone is your time, because when you give your time you are giving a portion of your life that you will never get back”. We must all recognize the importance of time and spend it in the right manner to do well in our life.

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Education plays a great role in everyone’s life by building personality, improving knowledge and skill and providing feeling of well being of a person. Education has been divided into three categories in our country as Primary education, Secondary education and Higher Secondary education. It develops our analytical skills, character and overall personality. Education helps a person in nourishing his present and future by ensuring aim of the life. Quality and importance of the education is increasing day by day. Every child must to go school in his/her appropriate age as everyone has equal rights for the education from birth. The growth and development of any country depends on the quality of education system set for young ones in the schools and colleges. However, the education system in every areas of the country is not same so the proper growth and development of the people and society varies according to the weak and strong education system of the particular region.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident.

Education is the most important factor which plays a great role in the development of an individual as well as a country. Now a day, it has become a vital factor for the future brightness of the new generations of any society. Education has been made compulsory by the government for all the children of age 5 to 15. Education influences lives of everyone in positive ways and teaches us to tackle any big or small problems in life. Even after a big awareness in the society towards the necessity of education for everyone, the percentage of education is still not same in different areas of the country. People living in the backwards areas are not getting proper benefits of good educational as they lack money and other resources. However, some new and effective strategies has been planned and implemented by the government to resolve the problems in such areas. Education improves the mental status and change the way of thinking of a person. It brings confidence and helps to convert the thinking into the action to go ahead and get success and experience. Without education life becomes aimless and tough. So we should understand the importance of the education and its involvement in our daily lives. We should encourage the education in the backward areas by letting them know the benefits of education. Disabled people and poor people are equally required and have equal rights to get educated like rich and common people to get global development. Each of us should try our best to get educated at higher level as well as make the good education accessible for everyone globally particularly the poor and disabled people. Some people are completely uneducated and living very painful life because of the lack of knowledge and skill. Some people are educated but do not have enough skill to earn money for their daily routine just because of the lack of proper education system in the backwards areas. Thus we should try to have equal opportunities of good education system for everyone whether living in rich or poor regions. A country cannot grow and develop without the individual growth and development of its citizens. Thus the development of any country depends hugely on the education standard available to its citizens. A good education system must have common goals in every areas of country to provide a suitable and proper learning to its citizensLorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident.

Education is very necessary for the betterment of everyone’s life and thus we all should know the importance of education in our life. It enables us and prepares us in every aspect of life. The education system is still weak in the undeveloped regions of the country instead of lots of the educational awareness programmes run by the government. People living in such areas are very poor and spend their whole day in arranging only some basic needs. However, it needs a broad effort by everyone to make the possibility of proper education system in every corner of the country. It needs active participation by everyone to enhance the level of education system in the country. The authority of schools and colleges should set up some chief objectives of the education in order to stimulate the interest and curiosity of their students. The fee structure should also be discussed to a broad level as because of the high fees structure most of the students become unable to precede their education which brings disparity in every aspect of life among people. Education is the first and foremost right of the human beings so everyone should get equality in education. We must make a balance in the facilities for education for all to bring equality among people as well as equal individual development all through the country. Education enables everyone in the society to interpret with the things around them in very positive way. It helps to maintain a balance between our body, mind and spirit as well as promotes further required advancement in the education technology. It promotes the active participation of individual living in the society for the growth and development of their countries. It enables everyone to grow both socially and economically by developing the common culture and values in the society. Education is very necessary for the betterment of everyone’s life and thus we all should know the importance of education in our life. It enables us and prepares us in every aspect of life. The education system is still weak in the undeveloped regions of the country instead of lots of the educational awareness programmes run by the government. People living in such areas are very poor and spend their whole day in arranging only some basic needs. However, it needs a broad effort by everyone to make the possibility of proper education system in every corner of the country. It needs active participation by everyone to enhance the level of education system in the country. The authority of schools and colleges should set up some chief objectives of the education in order to stimulate the interest and curiosity of their students. The fee structure should also be discussed to a broad level as because of the high fees structure most of the students become unable to precede their education which brings disparity in every aspect of life among people. Education is the first and foremost right of the human beings so everyone should get equality in education. We must make a balance in the facilities for education for all to bring equality among people as well as equal individual development all through the country. Education enables everyone in the society to interpret with the things around them in very positive way. It helps to maintain a balance between our body, mind and spirit as well as promotes further required advancement in the education technology. It promotes the active participation of individual living in the society for the growth and development of their countries. It enables everyone to grow both socially and economically by developing the common culture and values in the society.

The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi. With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows – the dedication to ‘Le Pouvoir dans la Peau‘ (Power in the skin) reads ‘A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere’ (three missing accents in one word – mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and write a ‘postface’ assessment both of his writing and of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his ‘preface to the postface’, which I will have to leave to French readers of the whole thing (published by Plon). But for the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of you might like to read the said ‘postface’ in English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. I’m looking forward to being in the country with the highest ‘human development index’ in the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. We live in a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. ‘ Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Some of the principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am ‘tribal Labour’, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them. But you cannot stand aside and imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of this book, so too is Barack Obama. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Obama’s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of democratic participation. It was less command and control – the model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour’s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 – than ‘inspire and empower.’ ‘Yes we can’ not ‘yes I can’. His supporters were more than supporters. They were an active part of the campaign, and of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and the internet. Ask me who has had the most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for them. But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key – on this I agree totally with Seguela – is authenticity. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders’ Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in Brown’s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the House of Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved. Yet in a way the public did get to the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs’ expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about Brown. Also the Tories had big money to spend on the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain’s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign – experience, and being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of principle to act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela’s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l’amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. ‘Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n’est pas en couvrant d’insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c’est se faire preferer.’ That may seem glib. But politics is a human business. It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. ‘He’s not listening … Why on earth did he do that? … I’ve gone off him … Oh, I still like him deep down.’ Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a ‘plane and he would look down and say ‘God, I wish I knew what they were thinking … Do they still like us?’ Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country ‘falling in love’ with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of betrayal against Blair will often come from those who ‘fell in love’ most deeply at the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel – these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans – not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand – who had developed Obama’s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids – half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in China. That too is a powerful force of global change, and will have its impact on Western politics of the future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don’t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out ideas and challenges for right and left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. I was in Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes. Incumbency is a powerful weapon. A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and one which addressed people’s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to deliver on the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the French left’s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of France. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is not a dirty word. I don’t agree with all of Seguela’s analysis. I don’t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron’s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I’m not sure I agree this risks being ‘en bras arme de l’anarchie’. But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. He understands the importance of body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason. He understands how the web is changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is that ‘life is on the record’. He has a different way of putting it. ‘Le “off” n’existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.’ It is why the whole ‘droit d’etre oublie’ is emerging as a debate. How many of the young men and women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan ‘we can’t go on like this.’ Someone noticed that the Tory leader’s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the source of thousands of tweets. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. I’ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money – when the newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced … Cameron’s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley’s hair, and to the slogan ‘we can’t go on like this’ had been added the words of one of Elvis’ most famous songs … ‘with suspicious minds’. The combination of the internet and wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears … ‘Campaigning is like sex. If you’re not enjoying it, you’re not doing it properly.’

Themes and Sources is examined via a Long Essay of 3,000 to 5,000 words. This is a ‘take-home’ examination paper which first-year students receive in May, after they have completed the course. Students submit their Long Essay the following January, at the start of the Lent term in their second year. The aims of the Long Essay are to test students’ understanding of the main problems and approaches of the course they have followed with reference to a specific question. The paper is usually divided into two parts. Students are required to answer one question specified in the paper for their option, from either section A) Essay questions, or section B) Topics. Section A contains specific, targeted questions whose wording may not be altered. Section B outlines broad topics within which a student could devise a more precise title, in consultation with the teacher of the option, who must formally approve the final title. Option teachers must ensure that the title eventually chosen relates to the overall issues developed by the option, and that there is adequate source material and secondary literature available to the student. Skills Examined The basic skills to be tested are similar to those expected in a supervision essay: the ability to argue clearly and cogently; to expound the issues involved in a given topic or problem; to evaluate interpretations and their relevance to the evidence on which historical argument is based. Essays may vary in the extent of their treatment of historiography depending on the approaches of individual options, but because many Themes and Sources options focus particularly on primary source material, students are expected, where possible, to pay special attention to evaluating sources, e.g. by discussing and comparing their reliability and explaining their value for the historian. Sophisticated discussion of such matters raised by a question or topic may constitute the main contents of an essay. However, in other cases students may be expected to concentrate more on secondary literature; advice will be given about the most suitable course of action appropriate to each essay title. In addition, students should show ability to use footnotes and to present an adequate bibliography of the sources and literature used. The Long Essay provides the opportunity for students to show how well they have grasped the general issues raised by the option and their ability to analyse them in terms of a particular historical problem. It can often be written using the materials provided in the source books (or similar source material indicated by option teachers) and supplemented by secondary reading. Again, more precise guidance on this point will be given in individual options. Students may be expected to show some initiative in finding and identifying literature on their subject, but the option teachers will provide sufficient material to make a start. The marking criteria for assessment of Themes and Sources Long Essays are available here (see p.5). Writing the Long Essay During the Easter Term there will be a ninth class and an individual supervision of 30-45 minutes (which will be arranged with one of the class teachers) devoted to discussing the requisite content, research methods, and format of the Long Essay, amongst other general issues. The supervision is also an opportunity to discuss the nature of a question and its relation to the overall option theme, as well as bibliography, and for the teacher to give more general advice concerning structure and presentation. Students should give careful thought to the choice of questions before the supervision and if possible narrow down their choice to one or two questions or topics. Students are also advised to look at some of the reading in advance, so as to make best use of the supervision. Students should note that as this is an examination paper, this is the only individual tuition permitted and no further supervision is provided during the course of their work on the Long Essay. It is permissible to approach option teachers to ask for further bibliographical advice at a later stage, but they will not provide further supervision, read drafts or give further advice concerning the content of an essay. In the interests of equity and to preserve the integrity of the examination, Directors of Studies have no involvement in the preparation of the Long Essay. While they may assist in planning of work schedules, they must on no account be approached to discuss content or to read or comment on drafts of the Long Essay, nor is it permissible to ask other teachers or graduate students to do so. It should be emphasised that the bulk of the work necessary for this paper must be done during the LONG VACATION. Because of difficulties of access to libraries during that time, a lengthy period has been allowed for completion and submission of the Long Essay. Students should plan their work carefully in advance so that some preliminary work is done before going down for the Long Vacation and so that a final draft is ready before coming up for the Michaelmas Term in the second year. The Christmas vacation should only be used for final corrections and adjustments, so that a completed and revised essay can be submitted at the beginning of the Lent Term. The Faculty Style Guide (available on the website) gives detailed guidance about word count, presentation, footnotes and bibliography, and is essential reading. Submission of Long Essays The Long Essay must be submitted to the Themes and Sources Secretary in the History Faculty by 3.00pm on the first Thursday of Lent Full Term. Late submission will only be granted in exceptional circumstances. Your College must apply to the Secretary of the Applications Committee for an extension to a deadline and should not approach the Chair of Examiners directly. Any extension will be for a specified period. Applications must be made in reasonable time to enable the Secretary to consult the Chair. An essay submitted later than the date specified by the Chair of Examiners, or by the due date if no extension has been granted, will not be accepted (University Ordinances, Chapter III, Section 2, Regulation 7 refers). Students are required to submit TWO hard copies and ONE digital copy of their Long Essay, on the day that the essay is due. All copies of the Long Essay must be typed, unless permission to the contrary has been granted in advance by the Themes and Sources Convenor, which will only happen in exceptional cases. A completed Cover Sheet should be stapled or securely attached to the front of each hard copy of the Long Essay, ensuring that all information is clearly legible. The full title of the essay should be repeated at the top of the first page of all copies, and particular attention should be paid to any supplementary rubric at the top of individual option papers. Students are required to submit the digital copy of their Long Essay to Turnitin UK via Moodle, the content of which must be identical with that of the hard copies. Further instructions for the digital submission will be issued prior to the submission date. Turnitin UK text-matching software is an online service that compares submitted work for matches with a database of material available online and with a ‘private’ database of previous submissions. Twenty percent of each submission will be selected for scrutiny by the Academic Secretary, acting as Faculty Academic Integrity Officer. Normally, this will be work highlighted by the Turnitin software as containing a significant amount of recognised text. Work recommended by Examiners for further investigation may also be selected for scrutiny. Originality reports for scrutinised work will be referred to the Examiners responsible for the academic assessment of the work if there is prima facie evidence of plagiarism or poor academic practice. Students will be asked to confirm their awareness of this process on a separate (unbound) Declaration form, which is to be handed-in at the time of submission. Identifying information must not appear anywhere other than on this form. The Declaration contains a statement about plagiarism, which is the unacknowledged use of the work of others as if it were original work. All material must be fully referenced and acknowledged. Plagiarism is a serious offence and will not be tolerated by the Faculty of History. Further information about the Faculty’s use of Turnitin and how to avoid plagiarism, can be found on the Faculty website: Guidance on Plagiarism. The University also publishes detailed guidance here: http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/univ/plagiarism/students/ Students are reminded to take care of their work and to back-up text, keep extra copies separately etc. Students, and not the Faculty, are responsible for submitting their essays on time. Computer difficulties, stolen equipment, failure to allow sufficient time for printing problems etc. will not be accepted as excusable reasons for late submission. Finally, please note that the essay will not be returned after the completion of the class list, but will be retained by the Board of Examiners for 6 months like any other examination script. If students wish to keep a copy for their own purposes, they should bear this in mind before submitting the essay.

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